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Management

Project management structure

The management structure is a team of people involved in project implementation with specific roles, responsibilities, and hierarchical dependencies.

The project management structure applies:

  • for each project is different and is determined by the specificity of the project itself
  • the source of the management structure is the project development team
  • assess quantitatively and qualitatively human resources and their dependencies
  • each person involved in the project must have a job description concerning the project (not concerning the role he is currently playing in the organization)

The project management structure should:

  • indicate the number of participants in the project
  • determine the type of participants (qualitative characteristic in terms of positions and responsibilities in the project)
  • indicate the hierarchical dependency (who is to whom and to whom it will be subordinated)
  • determine decision-making procedures
  • identify those responsible for achieving each specific outcome
  • determine the points of management control by type and time
  • define those responsible for spending the budget
  • determine the monitoring and control system

Action Plan

The Action Plan is a carefully drafted document showing how, where, when, and by whom the project results will be achieved.

What information the action plan provides us with

  • whether the project objectives are achievable
  • what resources are needed to achieve them
  • is there enough time
  • what are the risks associated with achieving the objectives
  • what are the responsibilities of the team

A well-designed action plan will help us avoid:

  • the aggregation of many activities in the same period
  • insufficient resources available
  • the possible omission of necessary activities
  • the inadequacy of the interdependencies and relationships between the different activities
  • unclear formulation of the links between activities and results
  • delays in the delivery of resources, which would disrupt the implementation schedule
  • optimistic or unrealistic expectations about project results are unacceptable

What the action plan includes

  • the results to be obtained
  • the activities needed to get results
  • the resources and time required to complete the activities
  • those responsible for achieving the results
  • interdependencies between activities
  • external dependencies on the provision of information, products or services
  • monitoring and control points

What are the substantive parts of the action plan

Summary
Line and network graphs
List of results (with time limits for achieving them)
Explanatory note

How to draw up an action plan

Determine the results.
The activities with their relationships and dependencies are identified.
Resources and time are determined.
The necessary schedules are made:
a timetable for action
plan of activities
resource schedule
The risks are analyzed.
The action plan (in paper and electronic format) is written.

Purpose of the logical framework

Assisting the team that develops and implements the project better to structure and formulate their ideas and present them in a clear, standard format.

Checking the logic of project action by presenting the project elements in a hierarchical relationship and preventing the mix of resources, activities, results, and goals (main and specific). If the strategy is wrong or the logic is bad, the logical framework should reveal discrepancies, though, by itself, it cannot create better strategies.

A tool for improving project planning and management.

The essence of the logical framework

The logical framework is a table (matrix), the construction of which obeys strict vertical and horizontal logic.

Vertical logic of the matrix (the logic of intervention) – defines what the intentions of the project are, clarifies the causal relationships, and specifies the important assumptions and risks beyond the control of the management team.

Horizontal matrix logic (effect logic) – is related to measuring the effect of the project implementation and the resources used. This is achieved by specifying key indicators of progress indicators and sources through which they can be verified.

SUMMARY AND EXERCISES

The lessons included in the section provide basic knowledge of the nature of the project with its phases and life cycle.

Emphasis is placed on building a project team, defining team roles and the main stages in its development.

An important place is given to the process of project preparation and its individual elements. Basic information is given about the targeting, the fixation of a target group that is appropriate to the set goals and covers participants with common needs.

Particular attention is paid to the effective and logical presentation of the expected results of the project, as well as the formulation and planning of activities that will contribute to the achievement of these results.

In conclusion, project management is necessary to ensure the effective implementation of an idea, the introduction of innovation, and quality management. It is necessary to focus on the benefits of the target group/client, guarantee standards and transparency and effectively apply the resources available – team, time and finances.

EXERCISE 1

Indicate with a “yes” or “no” the correct statement

The project is a set of specific goals, tasks, and activities that are accomplished within a specified timeframe
YES / NO
Identifying problems involves solving them
YES / NO
The common purpose, the interaction between the members, the role behavior are part
of the characteristics of the project team
YES / NO
The project objectives are described in the project annexes
YES / NO
The desired future status that is expected to be achieved within the project is included in the concept of a specific objective
YES / NO

EXERCISE 2

Indicate with a “yes” or “no” the correct statement

The main objective of the project is to show what alternative solutions are
YES / NO
The technical project and the business plan are the main elements of the project
YES / NO
Purposefulness, good coordination among members and planning of individual duties are the principles of a successful team
YES / NO
The project manager plays the team role of project coordinator
YES / NO
Institutions involved or affected by the project are an element of the institutional environment of project implementation and management
YES / NO

EXERCISE 3

Make a “yes” or “no” statement

A goal tree is a methodological approach that is used to illustrate the link means – results in the form of a diagram
YES / NO
The first phase of the project is the preparation of the project
YES / NO
The development process is a process of transition from the present, assessed as unsatisfactory, to a future situation, which is seen as an improvement
YES / NO
Each project is limited in terms of time and cost
YES / NO
The project management is carried out by the project team
YES / NO

EXERCISE 4
Which of the following answers is incorrect?

When describing the target group, we should keep in mind:

a) To whom is the project directed?

b) What is the opinion of public institutions?

c) Who will be influenced and supported by the project?

d) Whose behavior seeks to change the project? See Change control and configuration management

e) What is the possibility of grouping?

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